Fracking refers to the process whereby hydraulic pressure is used to fracture rocks and allow the natural shale gas and oil contained within to flow out. This gas and oil is funneled through a well. Before the drilling takes place, a steel pipe is fitted into the upper portion of the rock. This casing is meant to protect groundwater from any contaminants that may leak. Cement is used to secure this casing. A fluid compound of mostly water and sand, plus a few chemicals mixed in for extraction, is used to encourage the flow of the gas and oil into the well.
Fracking allows the extraction of natural resources where other technology doesn't. Shale deposits in the rocks below the surface contain huge oil and gas reserves, and tapping into them has become a lucrative prospect for the American fuel economy.